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Thursday, September 3, 2009

Diseases Causing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Sections of Diseases Causing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Diseases Causing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

The number one cause of stage 5 CKD in the US
• Damages the small vessels in the glomeruli so they lose their selective permeability and become "leaky" (microalbuminuria)
• Proteinuria, low serum albumin, high cholesterol, and edema are some of the first symptoms of clear-cut diabetic nephropathy
• They are followed by the development of arterial hypertension and progressive chronic renal failure

Hypertension/Large Vessel Disease
• Renal arteries become thickened from the prolonged high pressures
• Renal arteries may narrow and cause further decrease of blood flow
• Renal arteries and glomerular capillaries become clogged and tubules atrophy

• inflammation that affects the glomerular capillaries, usually from an immunologic process
• antigen/antibody complexes are trapped in the glomeruli
• can occur after a beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of throat or skin (acute)
• during childhood and adolescent years, more often in boys vs. girls
• treat the symptoms; usually given steroids and antibiotics
• generally good prognosis although patient can develop
• chronic glomerulonephritis and CKD

Interstitial Nephritis/Pyelonephritis
• inflammation usually caused by E. Coli
• may be asymptomatic to developing fever, chills, flank pain, bacteriuria, pyuria
• prognosis is good, however repeated recurrences may scar the kidney leading to CKD

Congenital and Cystic Diseases
• approx. 10% of newborns have significant malformations of the urinary tract "single kidney
     • fused kidney
     • displaced kidney
     • aplastic kidney

• Polycystic Kidney Disease
     • nephrons become cystic with outpouchings
     • onset usually at 30-50 years of age
     • inherited
• Medullary Cystic Disease
     • kidneys are small with medullary cysts
     • rare, sporadic occurring inherited disease

Secondary Glomerulonephritis/Vasculitis

• Scleroderma
     • vascular and collagen changes resulting in thickening and insufficiency
• Lupus Erythematosus
     • chronic systemic inflammatory disorder of the arterial vasculature from autoantibody formation
• Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome


• Neoplasm
     • usually is a metastasis from the lung
     • poor prognosis
     • radical nephrectomy is tx of choice
• Wilm's Tumor (children)
     • most common tumor of urinary tract in children

Diseases Causing Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) - Related Hemodialysis Article


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