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Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Renal Anatomy and Physiology

Sections of Renal Anatomy and Physiology

Renal System:
• Two kidneys
• Two ureters
• Bladder
• Urethra

• Two Purplish lima bean - shaped organ
• Located in the lower flank
• Right kidney is lower than the left because the liver is above the right kidney
• Each kidney weighs approximately 1-1/2 pound
• Approximately the size of a fist
• The body's total blood supply circulates through the kidneys approximately 12 times per hour

The Basic Unit of the Kidney:
• Each nephron is a tiny filter and purifier
• The body has about one million nephrons
• A nephron is made up ofaglomerulus and a tubule

Functions of the Kidneys

• R-Remove
• R-Regulate
• E-Endocrine

Removal of:
• waste products
• urea - breakdown of protein in the diet
• creatinine - end product of creatinine metabolism
• skeletal muscle breakdown
• uric acid - purine breakdown

Regulation of:
• fluid and electrolyte balance
• sodium, potassium, calcium phosphate, magnesium
• acid-base balance - prevents metabolic acidosis

• production of Renin
          - an enzyme that controls blood pressure by affecting sodium and fluid volume.
• Erythropoietin formation
          - a hormone that controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow
•  stimulates conversion of Vitamin D to its active form -calcitrol
          - a hormone that enhances absorption of calcium from the intestines.
Image Source: medicalartlibrary.com

Renal Anatomy and Physiology - Related Hemodialysis Article


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